Gabriella Campadelli-Fiume has had a long term interest in herpes simplex virus. After a residency in Virology at the University of Bologna, she became Associate Professor, and thereafter Professor of Virology in the University of Milan; she then moved back to the University of Bologna, Department of Experimental, Diagnostic and Specialty Medicine. Her work has focused on HSV entry into the cell, and viral assembly and exit out of cell, virus-induced changes to the exocytic pathway. She contributed to dissect the role of the glycoproteins – gD, gH, gL, gB – in HSV entry and discovered one of the gD receptor, Nectin1. Subsequently, she discovered that HSV makes use also of gH/gL receptors, avβ6- and avβ8-integrins, and that integrins cooperate with Toll Like Receptors to mount the immediate innate response to HSV. Building on her experience on HSV entry, in the past years, she designed highly cancer specific oncolytic herpes simplex viruses, fully retargeted to cancer-specific receptors; these viruses have shown therapeutic efficacy in preclinical studies, exert strong immunotherapeutic effects and are now in the translational phase.